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Lithium ion battery material and the composition

Lithium ion battery material and the composition

Lithium-ion battery consists of the following components: positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, electrolyte salt, adhesive, diaphragm, positive lead, negative lead, central terminal, insulating material, safety valve, positive temperature coefficient terminal (PTC terminal), negative fluid collector, positive fluid collector, conductive agent, and battery shell.

1. Positive electrode material
Cathode materials are transition metal oxides containing lithium, phosphates such as LiCoO2, LiFePO4, conductive polymers such as polyacetylene, polybenzene, polypyrrole, polythiophene, active polysulfide compounds; Lithium - embedded cathode material is an important part of lithium - ion battery.
Positive electrode materials occupy a large proportion in lithium-ion batteries (the mass ratio of positive and negative electrode materials is 3:1 ~ 4:1), so the performance of positive electrode materials will greatly affect the performance of batteries, and its cost directly determines the cost of batteries.

2. Negative electrode material
Anode materials are carbon materials, nitrides, silicon-based materials, tin-based materials and new alloys that can store lithium in large quantities. The biggest difference between lithium ion battery and secondary lithium battery is that the former uses lithium embedded compound instead of lithium metal as the negative electrode of battery, so the research and development of lithium ion battery, to a large extent, is the research and development of negative lithium embedded compound.

3. Electrolyte
Electrolytes are organic solutions of lithium salts, polymers, inorganic solids; As an important part of battery, electrolyte can transport ions and conduct current between positive and negative electrodes. Selecting suitable electrolyte is the key to obtain high energy density and power density, long cycle life and good safety performance of lithium-ion battery.

4. Adhesive
The adhesive is fluoropolymer, ethylene propylene rubber, carbon-based material, silicone gel, radioactive crosslinked polymer, etc. The main functions of adhesives are: adhesion of active substances; Make the active substance adhere to the collecting fluid; In the process of charge and discharge, the adhesive active substance is preserved and the active substance is adhered to the collector fluid. In the production process to form a slurry to facilitate coating; To mitigate the volume expansion of carbon anode when inserting lithium.

5. Diaphragm material
Diaphragm materials are porous polyolefin, polyamide non-woven fabric, etc. The function of lithium ion battery diaphragm paper in lithium ion battery is to isolate the positive and negative materials. The quality of diaphragm paper directly affects the safety performance and capacity of battery.

6, positive temperature coefficient terminal
The positive temperature coefficient terminal (PTC terminal) is a composite material of conductive filler and polymer. The positive temperature coefficient terminal prevents excessive battery current. Under normal temperature, the resistance of the positive temperature coefficient terminal is very small, but when the temperature reaches about 120℃, the resistance increases suddenly, resulting in a rapid decline in current. When the temperature drops, the resistance of the positive temperature coefficient terminal becomes smaller and can be charged and discharged normally.

7. Negative collector fluid material
Negative collector fluid material is copper foil, copper net, stainless steel net, other metal net; Copper foil (10μm ~ 20μm thick) is generally used as the negative collector fluid material. Copper foil, as a non-ferrous metal foil material, is used in the cathode collector fluid of lithium batteries. The following three technical specifications are required: (1) thickness (8μm ~ 12μm); (2) Tensile strength (>30kg/mm2); (3) elongation (>5%)

8, positive collector fluid material: positive collector fluid material is aluminum foil, etc.; The positive collector fluid material is usually aluminum foil (20μm thick).

9.Conductive agent: due to the low conductivity of active materials, conductive agents are generally added to accelerate the transfer of electrons, but also effectively improve the migration rate of lithium ions in electrode materials. Common conductive agents are graphite, carbon black, acetylene black, colloidal carbon.

10, battery shell: battery shell is steel, aluminum and other materials.

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